In a conventional angiogram, a dye or contrast agent is injected into the bloodstream and x-rays are taken to visualize the blood vessels and how well they are functioning to deliver blood. In this same manner CT or MRI can be used to create three-dimensional pictures of blood vessels and their surrounding structures.
A non invasive imaging study that uses ultrasound (soundwaves) to evaluate the two carotid arteries which are located on each side of the neck and carry blood from the heart to the brain and provides detailed pictures of these blood vessels and information about the blood flow through them.
Pre-surgical exam designed to assist Interventional Neurologists and neurosurgeons to define the functional aspects of regions in the brain. A medication such as sodium amobarbital or equivilant is injected into targeted vessels in the brain and the patient is evaluated for functional deficits.
Balloon Test Occlusion
The Transcranial Doppler (TCD) and the more recent Transcranial Color Doppler (TCCD) are tests that measure the velocity (or speed) of blood flow through the brain's blood vessels. TCD is effective to detect: vasospasm related to subarachnoid hemorrhage, arteriovenous malformations and possible use for perioperative monitoring.
Petrosal Sinus Sampling
MR Diffusion/Perfusion (1.5 3T Magnets)
Diffusion MR imaging, diffusion detects the water molecules’ random motion as they diffuse through the extra-cellular space;
Perfusion MR imaging, perfusion refers to oxygen and nutrients’ delivery to the cells via capillaries in the biologic tissue (tumors); with calculation of cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume.
PET – FDG-18 PET (Flouro-deoxy glucose – 18 Positron emission tomography)
This is a nuclear medicine study: involves injection of a substance that allows visualization of molecular activity within the body. A PET scan measures important body functions, such as blood flow, oxygen use, and sugar metabolism to evaluate how well organs and tissues are functioning.